And how does the teeth whitening process work?
Tooth discolouration and staining are a result of various dyes and pigments attaching to the organic matter of your tooth. The process of lifting these stains is most commonly achieved by two methods: physical removal and chemical bleaching.
Physical removal targets superficial staining (surface level daily stains) through an abrasive method of action. Chemical bleaching works on both superficial and embedded stains (stains embedded in the tooth enamel), so it's the most common and effective method of teeth whitening.
How is chemical bleaching used to remove stains from teeth?
Using chemical bleaching to whiten teeth means that the stains are oxidized which alters the molecules that hold the colour. Put another way, the bleaching agent, entering through the tooth enamel, breaks down these molecules into a smaller simpler ones. Smaller molecules result in a lighter colour, giving the teeth an overall whiter appearance.
The more commonly used bleaching agents include Peroxide, Carbamide Peroxide, and Phthalimidoperoxycaproic Acid, or PAP as we like to call it.
What are the differences between using PAP & Peroxide
Peroxide-based and PAP teeth whitening regimens are oxidizing actions that break down stains and discoloration and brighten the appearance of teeth.
Using a peroxide process releases oxygen-containing molecules known as free radicals. These free radicals assault organic molecules and reduce stains and discoloration. However, there can be side effects like tooth sensitivity, irritation of the gums, and demineralization.
A similar reaction is achieved with PAP but without any release of free radicals. What that means is molecules that cause discoloration are effectively and safely broken down with no risk of sensitivity, pain, or damage to teeth or gums.
Why isn’t PAP more widely used?
The majority of dentists still use peroxide-based whitening treatments as they can control and limit any side effects of free radicals during an in-chair application. But now, with the easier access and increase in popularity of at-home peroxide products, the application of peroxide-based treatments has become less safe.
PAP is still not widely used by dentists, this may be due to the fact that formulation and stability are difficult. A higher pH level in a PAP means it is more effective. The downside to this is that the formula has a short shelf-life.
Why is PAP3 so special?
After many years of work, we have perfected the formulation process to maximize the PAP efficiency while achieving stability. The final result is PAP3, the formula that can whiten teeth effectively without unwanted side effects.
We have gone a step further and incorporated ingredients to PAP3 that remineralize teeth and reverse the effects of any pre-existing tooth sensitivity, including Potassium Citrate and Hydroxyapatite.